In solar photovoltaic power generation systems, solar panels are installed outdoors and are susceptible to special climatic influences. To ensure the normal work of solar photovoltaic power generation systems, when encountering hail, lightning strikes, and other special climates, there should be corresponding protection methods to protect it effectively.
Solar panel lightning strike impact
1、The impact of direct lightning
Directly hit the solar panel, causing damage to the equipment, and then unable to generate electricity.
2、Conducted lightning impact
Distant lightning flashes, because of electromagnetic pulse space propagation, will produce surge overvoltage induction on photovoltaic power generation system equipment and lines, damaging equipment.
3、Ground potential backlash impact
In solar power systems with external lightning protection, the external lightning protection equipment will introduce lightning into the earth, which then leads to high voltage on the ground network. The high voltage enters the equipment through the equipment’s ground wire and then damages the controller, inverter or AC and DC loads, and other equipment.
Lightning activity from the season to the most active in summer, and the least in winter, from the regional distribution, is the most active near the equator, with latitude increases and decreasing, and the least polar.
The solar panel lightning protection methods
1、Simple lightning protection methods
Do simple lightning protection equipment on the outside of the equipment to protect solar panels and power equipment from being hit by direct lightning strikes.
The power supply line between the equipment and the solar panel, add lightning arrester, the type of DC load based on the operating voltage selection.
Lightning protection equipment lead wire and lightning arrester grounding line must be grounded to reach the intention of rapid current discharge.
2、 Grid-connected lightning protection methods
In the photovoltaic battery components and inverter or power regulator between the addition of a power supply lightning protector, for protection. This is the main channel for the power supply line to enter the room from outdoors, so it must be well protected from lightning electromagnetic pulse. The specific type is confirmed according to the site condition.
Add a second level of power lightning protector between the inverter and the power distribution panel for protection. The specific type is confirmed according to the site conditions.
Between the power distribution panel and the load install the third level of power lightning protector to protect the load equipment from damage by surge overvoltage. Specific type based on the site equipment to confirm.
All lightning protection equipment must be grounded, and the grounding of all equipment is connected to the public ground network.
Solar lightning protection methods mainly lie in the installation of lightning protectors, different types of solar panels’ lightning protection methods are different and need to be based on the actual situation of lightning protection.
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